Frankfurt Quasar Monitoring

PG 1116+215
Object data
  Cross-Identifications   EUVE J1119+21.3, 2MASSi J1119086+211918
  1XMM J111908.7+211918, 2EUVE J1119+21.3
  RX J1119.1+2119, 1RXS J111908.1+211915
FIRST J111908.6+211917, TON 1388, 2E 2443
  SDSS J111908.67+211918.0, 1116+215 
  Equat. coordinates   RA  11 19 08.8     DE  +21 19 18     (J2000)
  Constellation   Leo
  Type   QSO
  Distance (2) (3)
  702 Mpc
  Total mag range (mv) (4)   14.2 - 15.0
  Catalog Magnitude (1)   14.72
  Absolute Magnitude (1)   -25.3 MB
  Light Travel-Time (2)   2.110 × 109 yrs
(1) Véron-Cetty & Véron 2006, A&A 455, 776
(2) NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
(3) Co-Moving Radial Distance
(4) Literature

Finding chart


Comparison stars

star  B V R
A 14.22 13.47 13.14
B 14.50 13.77 13.37
C 15.12 14.34 13.93
D 15.16 14.49 14.15
comparison stars from GSC 2.3

PG 1116+215
The sharp eye of the Hubble Space Telescope resolved the host galaxy of PG 1116+215.

Image credit: Bahcall et al. (1997)

Colour chart
Credit: SDSS  /  Size 13´× 13´ /  Chart by S. Karge

Light curve


PG 1116+215 is a bright quasar in western Leo, only 1.4° NE of Delta Leonis. The designation PG:1116+215 derives from Palomar-Green Bright Quasar Survey (PG), where this object was identified as a blue stellar object. Follow-up spectroscopy led to the quasar classification (Seyfert 1-spectrum). Initially, PG 1116+215 was discovered in the late 1950s by mexican Tonantzintla Blue Stellar Objects Survey (TON), searching for blue stellar objects like white dwarfs and quasars. PG 1116+216 = TON 1388 was cataloged as a very blue object with a photographic magnitude of 14.5. In the late 1990s, Hubble Space Telescope identified the quasar host as a type E2 elliptical galaxy (see image above).

PG 1116+215 is a small amplitude variable with a total range of about 1 magnitude in the optical. Visual observers with telescopes of 8- to 10-inch of aperture and larger will track down this 14-mag quasar without difficulties. PG 1116+215 appears as a stellar object even in large aperture telescopes.

CCD observers, as well as visual observers, may use the comparison stars given above. No photometric sequence has been published to date.

In case you look for another bright quasar you may turn to PG 1211+143, a bright 14-mag quasar at a distance of about 1×109 light-years, 15° SE of PG 1116+215.
Turning your telescope 7.6° to the ENE will lead you to B2 1147+24, a highly variable BL Lac object, about 2.3×109 light-years distant.

When you are around for PG 1116+215 just take a while and move your telescope 1.2° to the SE to visit pretty bright Sc-spiral NGC 3646. Images show its spiral arms strongly disturbed, resulting in a ring-like spiral arm pattern. Only 7´ to the NE, there is another galaxy, NGC 3649, which is probably responsible for the disturbances in NGC 3646, due to former gravitational interaction.

About 1.5° NW of quasar PG 1116+215 we find a very special object: Leo II (UGC 6253, DDO 93), a Milky Way satellite galaxy. This dwarf spherical is a low surface brightness galaxy at a distance of roughly 800:000 light-years from earth. Deep widefield CCD imaging will easily catch this faint and large object (15´×:12´).
Visual observers may also like to take a look at two loose galaxy groups in western Leo.
The NGC:3607-galaxy group (3° S) and the NGC 3684-galaxy group (4.6° SE). Finally, rich galaxy cluster Abell 1367 (6° ESE), with its cD-galaxy NGC 3842, is an attractive (digital) observing target, you shall not miss.

Bahcall, J.N., Kirhakos, S., et al. 1997, ApJ, 479, 642; Hubble Space Telescope images of a sample of 20 nearby
     luminous quasars.
Boroson, T.A., Green, R.F. 1992, ApJS, 80, 109; The emission-line properties of low-redshift quasi-stellar objects.
Bowen, D.V., Osmer, S.J., Blades, J.C., et al. 1994, AJ, 107, 461; Hubble Space Telescope faint object spectrograph
     QSO absorption snapshot survey (ABSNA).
Chavira, E. 1959, BOTT, 18, 3; Estrellas azules en el Casquete Galactico Norte - II.
Elvis, M., Wilkes, B.J., McDowell, J.C., et al. 1994, ApJS, 95, 1; Atlas of quasar energy distributions.
Giveon, U., Maoz, D., et al., 1999, MNRAS, 306, 637; Long-term optical variability properties of the Palomar-Green
Green, R.F., Schmidt, M., Liebert, J. 1986, ApJS, 61, 305; The Palomar-Green catalog of ultraviolet-excess stellar
Hansen, T. 1991, Deep Sky Magazine 34, 32; The "Deepest" Deep Sky Objects.
Karge, S.; Helle Quasare für 8- bis 10-Zoll Teleskope. Ein Beobachtungsführer zur visuellen Beobachtung von
     Quasaren und BL Lacertae Objekten; Frankfurt 2005.
Schmidt, M., Green, R.F. 1983, ApJ, 269, 352; Quasar evolution derived from the Palomar bright quasar survey
     and other complete quasar surveys.
Steinicke, W.; Katalog heller Quasare und BL Lacertae Objekte; Umkirch 1998.
Véron-Cetty, M.-P., Véron, P. 2001, A&A 374, 92; A Catalogue of Quasars and Active Nuclei: 10th edition.
Véron-Cetty, M.-P., Véron, P. 2003, A&A 412, 399; A Catalogue of Quasars and Active Nuclei: 11th edition.
Véron-Cetty, M.-P., Véron, P. 2006, A&A 455, 776; A Catalogue of Quasars and Active Nuclei: 12th edition.
Véron-Cetty, M.-P., Véron, P. 2010, A&A 518, 10; A Catalogue of Quasars and Active Nuclei: 13th edition.
Wilkes, B.J., Kuraszkiewicz, J., Green, P.J., et al. 1999, ApJ, 513, 76; Investigation of the Relation between the
     Spectral Energy Distributions and the Emission Lines in Low-Redshift Quasars.



© Stefan Karge  /  last obs. 2023-01-13